Scott Bird's Family Tree

History: References Archives


Scots Weights, Measures and Money

There are a number of terms that may arise when researching Scottish ancestors that may be unfamiliar, particular in the areas of weights, measures and money.

The following is a list of some of the less well-known :

Liquid measures

Scots Imperial Metric
1 gill 0.749 gill 0.053 l
4 gills = 1 mutchkin 2.996 gills 0.848 l
2 mutchkins = 1 chopin 1 pint 1.992 gills 0.848 l
2 chopins = 1 pint * 2 pints 3.984 gills 1.696 l
8 pints = 1 gallon 3 gallons 0.25 gills 13.638 l
* 1 pint = 104.2034 cub ins 1 pint = 34.659 cub ins 1 litre = 61.027 cub ins

Linear and square measures

Scots Imperial Metric
1 inch 1.00016 in 2.54 cm
8.88 in = 1 Scots link 8.8942 in 22.55 cm
12 in = 1 foot 12.0192 in 30.5287 cm
3.5 feet = 1 ell 37.0598 in 94.1318 cm
6 ells = 1 fall (fa) 6.1766 yards (1.123 poles) 5.6479 m
4 falls = 1 chain 24.7064 yrd (1.123 chains) 22.5916 m
10 chains = 1 furlong 247.064 yrd (1.123 furlongs) 225.916 m
8 furlongs = 1 mile 1976.522 yrd (1.123 miles) 1.8073 km

Scots weights

Scots Imperial Metric
1 drop 1.093 drains 1.921 g
16 drops = 1 ounce 1 oz 1.5 drains 31 g
16 ounces = 1 pound 1 lb 1oz 8 drains 496 g
16 pounds = 1 stone 17 lb 8 oz 7.936 kg

Scots Money

Scots Sterling
1 penny 1/12 penny
2 pennies = 1 bodle 1/6 penny
2 bodles = 1 plack 1/3 penny
3 bodles = 1 bawbee 1/2 penny
2 bawbees = 1 shilling 1 penny
13 shillings 4 pence = 1 merk 1 shilling 1/12 pennies
20 shillings = 1 pound 1 shilling 8 pennies


These are the primary researchers for several families listed on this site. Should you require further information from any of them, let me know and I'll put you in touch.

Jude Price

Fraser, Garvin, MacDonald
Jackie Garvin

Bradfield, Hone, Pennell
Bart Jones, Chris King, Wendy Smith

Crew, Sweetlove
Sue Birch, Sandra Tongeman

Helen Beckinsale

Melvin Moyle

Bird, Rahmann
Scott Bird

Chapman Country Codes

Whether you're flicking through a census, updating the family tree using your favourite software or posting a message to a forum or mailing list, you'll find these handy : the Chapman Country Codes (CCC). Also covered are British counties.

Alsace [Elsass]					ELS
Anhalt		Anhalt-Bernburg (1863)		ANB
Anhalt		Anhalt-Dessau (1863)		AND
Anhalt		Anhalt-Köthen (1847)		ANK
Anhalt						ANH
Australia					AUS
Australia	Capital Territory		ACT
Australia	New South Wales			NSW
Australia	Northern Territory		NT
Australia	Queensland			QLD
Australia	South Australia			SA
Australia	Tasmania			TAS
Australia	Victoria			VIC
Australia	Western Australia		WA
Austria						OES
Austria		Böhmen [Bohenia]		BOH
Austria		Burgenland			BUR
Austria		Kärnten [Carynthia]		KAR
Austria		Krain [Carniola]		KRA
Austria		Mähren [Moravia]		MAE
Austria		Niederösterreich [Lower Austria]NOE
Austria		Oberösterreich [Upper Austria]	OOE
Austria		Salzburg			SLZ
Austria		Schlesien [Silesia]		SCI
Austria		Steirmark [Styria]		SLZ
Austria		Tirol [Tyrolia]			TIR
Austria		Vorarlberg			VOR
Austria		Wien [Vienna]			WIE
Baden						BAD
Baden		Breisgau			BRS
Bavaria		Franken [Franconia]		FRN
Bavaria		Oberpfalz [Upper Palatinate]	OBP
Bavaria		Pfalz [Palatinate]		PFA
Bavaria [Bayern]				BAY
Belgium						BEL
Belgium		Antwerpen			ATW
Belgium		Brabant				BBT
Belgium		Hainaut				HNT
Belgium		Liège				LGE
Belgium		Limburg				LBG
Belgium		Luxembourg			LXM
Belgium		Namur				NMR
Belgium		Oost-Vlaanderen			OVL
Belgium		West-Vlaanderen			WVL
Brunswick [Braunschweig]			BRU
Bulgaria					BGR
Canada						CAN
Canada		Alberta				ALB
Canada		British Columbia		BC
Canada		Manitoba			MAN
Canada		New Brunswick			NB
Canada		Newfoundland			NFD
Canada		Nova Scotia			NS
Canada		NW Territories			NWT
Canada		Ontario				ONT
Canada		Prince Edward Island		PEI
Canada		Quebec				QUE
Canada		Saskatchewan			SAS
Canada		Yukon				YUK
Channel Islands					CHI or CHA
Channel Islands	Alderney			ALD
Channel Islands	Guernsey			GSY
Channel Islands	Jersey				JEY
Channel Islands	Sark				SRK
Czechoslavakia					CS
Denmark						DEN
East Prussia	Ermland	
East Prussia	Masuren [Masuria]	
East Prussia	Memel	
East Prussia [Ostpreussen]			OPRU
England						ENG
England		Bedfordshire			BDF
England		Berkshire			BRK
England		Buckinghamshire			BKM
England		Cambridgeshire			CAM
England		Cheshire			CHS
England		Cornwall			CON
England		Cumberland			CUL
England		Derbyshire			DBY
England		Devon				DEV
England		Dorset				DOR
England		Durham				DUR
England		Essex				ESS
England		Gloucestershire			GLS
England		Hampshire			HAM
England		Hants see Hampshire		HAM
England		Herefordshire			HER
England		Hertfordshire			HRT
England		Huntingdonshire			HUN
England		Isle of Wight			IOW
England		Kent				KEN
England		Lancashire			LAN
England		Leicestershire			LEI or LEC
England		Lincolnshire			LIN
England		London				LND
England		Middlesex			MDX
England		Norfolk				NFK
England		Northamptonshire		NTH
England		Northumberland			NBL
England		Nottinghamshire			NTT
England		Oxfordshire			OXF
England		Rutland				RUT
England		Salop see Shropshire		SAL
England		Shropshire			SAL
England		Somerset			SOM
England		Staffordshire			STS
England		Suffolk				SFK
England		Surrey				SRY
England		Sussex				SSX
England		Warwickshire			WAR
England		Westmoreland			WES
England		Wiltshire			WIL
England		Worcestershire			WOR
England		Yorkshire [Ainsty & City of York] YKS
England		Yorkshire [East Riding]		ERY
England		Yorkshire [North Riding]	NRY
England		Yorkshire [West Riding]		WRY
Finland						FIN
France						FRA
France		Ain				RHA
France		Aisne				PIC
France		Allier				AUV
France		Alpes-de-Haute-Provence		PCA
France		Alpes-Maritimes			PCA
France		Alsace				ALS
France		Aquitaine			AQU
France		Ardèche				RHA
France		Ardennes			CHA
France		Arège				MP
France		Aube				CHA
France		Aude				LGD
France		Auvergne			AUV
France		Aveyron				MP
France		Bas-Rhin			ALS
France		Bouches-du-Rhôn			PCA
France		Bourgogne			BRG
France		Bretagne			BRT
France		Calvados			BN
France		Cantal				AUV
France		Centre				CEN
France		Champagne			CHA
France		Charente			PCH
France		Charente-Maritime		PCH
France		Cher				CEN
France		Cor-du-Sud			CR
France		Corrèze				LMS
France		Corse				CRS
France		Côte-d'or			BRG
France		Côtes-du-Nord			BRT
France		Creuse				LMS
France		Deux-Sèvres			PCH
France		Dorogne				AQU
France		Doubs				FC
France		Drôme				RHA
France		Essone				RPA
France		Eure				HN
France		Eure-et-Loir			CEN
France		Finistère			BRT
France		Franche-Conte			FC
France		Gard				LGD
France		Gers				MP
France		Gironde				AQU
France		Haut-Rhin			ALS
France		Haute-Corse			CR
France		Haute-Garonne			MP
France		Haute-Loire			AUW
France		Haute-Marne			CHA
France		Haute-Saöne			FC
France		Haute-Savoie			RHA
France		Haute-Vienne			LMS
France		Hautes-Alpes			PCA
France		Hautes-Pyrénées			MP
France		Hauts-de-Seine			RPA
France		Hérault				LGD
France		Ille-et-Vilaine			BRT
France		Indre-et-Loire			CEN
France		Isère				RPA
France		Jura				FC
France		Landes				AQU
France		Languedoc			LGD
France		Limousia			LMS
France		Loire				RHA
France		Loire-Atlantique		PL
France		Loiret				CEN
France		Loit-et-Cher			CEN
France		Lorraine			LOR
France		Lot				MP
France		Lot-et-Garonne			AQU
France		Lozère				LGD
France		Maine-et-Loire			PL
France		Manche				BN
France		Marne				CHA
France		Mayenne				PL
France		Meurthe-et-Moselle		LOR
France		Meuse				LOR
France		Midi-Pyrénées			MP
France		Morbihan			BRT
France		Moselle				LOR
France		Niévre				BRG
France		Nord				NOR
France		Nord				NOR
France		Normandie [Basse]		BN
France		Normandie [Haute]		HN
France		Oise				PIC
France		Orne				BN
France		Paris				RPA
France		Pas-de-Calais			NOR
France		Pay-de-Dôme			AUV
France		Pays de la Loire		PL
France		Picardie			PIC
France		Poitou-Charentes		PCH
France		Provence-Cote d'Azur		PCA
France		Pyrénées-Atlantiques		AQU
France		Pyrénées-Orientales		AQU
France		Region Parisienne		RPA
France		Rhône				RHA
France		Rhône-Alpes			RHA
France		Saône-et-Loire			BRG
France		Sarthe				PL
France		Savoie				RHA
France		Seine-et-Marne			RPA
France		Seine-Maritime			HN
France		Seine-St-Denis			RPA
France		Somme				PIC
France		Tarn				MP
France		Tarn-et-Garonne			MP
France		Territoire de Belfort		FC
France		Val-d'Oise			RPA
France		Val-de-Marne			RPA
France		Var				PCA
France		Vaucluse			PCA
France		Vendée				PL
France		Vienne				PCH
France		Vosges				LOR
France		Yonne				BRG
France		Yvelines			RPA
German Old Empire				GER
German Old Empire	Anhalt			ANH
German Old Empire	Baden			BAD
German Old Empire	Bayern [Bavaria]	BAV
German Old Empire	Berlin			BLN
German Old Empire	Brandenburg		BRA
German Old Empire	Braunschweig [Brunswick] BSW
German Old Empire	Bremen			BRM
German Old Empire	Elsass-Lothr [Alsace-Lorraine] ELO
German Old Empire	Ghzm Hessen [Grand Dukedom Hesse] GHE
German Old Empire	Hamburg			HBG
German Old Empire	Hanover			HAN
German Old Empire	Hessen-Nassau		HEN
German Old Empire	Hohenzollern		HOH
German Old Empire	Kgr Sachsen [Kingdom Saxony] KSA
German Old Empire	Lippe			LIP
German Old Empire	Lübeck			LUE
German Old Empire	M-Schwerin		MSW
German Old Empire	M-Streliz		MST
German Old Empire	Mecklenburg		MEK
German Old Empire	Oldenburg		OLD
German Old Empire	Ostpreussen [East Prussia] OPR
German Old Empire	Pommern [Pommerania]	POM
German Old Empire	Posen			POS
German Old Empire	Preussen allg [Prussia]	PRE
German Old Empire	Province Sachsen [Province Saxony] PSA
German Old Empire	Pyrmont			PYR
German Old Empire	Reuss			REU
German Old Empire	Rheinprovinz		RPR
German Old Empire	Sachsen-Altenburg	SAB
German Old Empire	Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha	SCG
German Old Empire	Sachsen-Meinigen	SME
German Old Empire	Sachsen-Rudolstadt	SRU
German Old Empire	Sachsen-Sondershausen	SSD
German Old Empire	Sachsen-Weimar		SWE
German Old Empire	Schaumburg-Lippe	SLP
German Old Empire	Schlesien [Silesia]	SIL
German Old Empire	Schleswig-Holstein	SHO
German Old Empire	Thuringen		THU
German Old Empire	Waldeck			WAL
German Old Empire	Westfalen		WEF
German Old Empire	Westpreussen [West Prussia] WPR
German Old Empire	Württemburg		WUE
Germany - East					DDR
Germany - East		Berlin			BLO
Germany - East		Cottbus			COT
Germany - East		Desden			DRE
Germany - East		Erfurt			ERF
Germany - East		Frankfurt/Oder		FFO
Germany - East		Gera			GRA
Germany - East		Halle			HAL
Germany - East		Karl-Marx-Stadt		KMS
Germany - East		Leipzig			LPZ
Germany - East		Magdeburg		MAG
Germany - East		Neubrandenburg		NBR
Germany - East		Potsdam			POT
Germany - East		Rostock			RST
Germany - East		Schwerin		SWR
Germany - East		Suhl			SUH
Germany post Wall				DEU
Germany - West					BRD
Germany - West	Baden-Württemburg		BAW
Germany - West	Bayern				BAY
Germany - West	Bremen				BRM
Germany - West	Hamburg				HBG
Germany - West	Hessen [Hesse]			HES
Germany - West	Niedersachsen			NSA
Germany - West	Nordrhein-Westfalen Nth Rhine-Westfalia] NRW
Germany - West	Rheinland-Pfalz [Rhineland-Palatinale]	RPF
Germany - West	Saarland			SAA
Germany - West	Schleswig-Holstein		SHO
Germany - West	West Berlin			BLW
Greece						GR
Hanover [Hannover ]				HAN
Hesse		Hessen-Darmsatdt [Hesse-Darmstadt] HD
Hesse		Hessen-Homburg (1817)		HOM
Hesse		Hessen-Kassel/Kurhessen Hesse-Kassel/Electorate	HK
Hesse [Hessen]					HES
Holstein					HOS
Hungary						HU
Ireland						IRL
Ireland		Antrin				ANT
Ireland		Armagh				ARM
Ireland		Carlow				CAR
Ireland		Cavan				CAV
Ireland		Clare				CLA
Ireland		Cork				COR
Ireland		Derry				DRY
Ireland		Donegal				DON
Ireland		Down				DOW
Ireland		Dublin				DUB
Ireland		Fermanagh			FER
Ireland		Galway				GAL
Ireland		Kerry				KER
Ireland		Kildare				KID
Ireland		Kilkenny			KIK
Ireland		Leitrim				LET
Ireland		Leix [Queens]			LEX
Ireland		Limerick			LIM
Ireland		Londonderry			LDY
Ireland		Longford			LOG
Ireland		Louth				LOU
Ireland		Mayo				MAY
Ireland		Meath				MEA
Ireland		Monaghan			MOG
Ireland		Offaly [Kings]			OFF
Ireland		Roscommon			ROS
Ireland		Sligo				SLI
Ireland		Tipperary			TIP
Ireland		Tyrone				TYR
Ireland		Waterford			WAT
Ireland		Westmeath			WEM
Ireland		Wexford				WEX
Ireland		Wicklow				WIC
Isle of Man	Isle of Man			IOM
Italy						ITL
Lauenburg					LAU
Liechtenstein					FLI
Lorraine [Lothringen]				LOT
Luxembourg [Luxemburg]				LUX
Mecklenburg					MEC
Mecklenburg	Mecklenburg-Schwerin		MSC
Mecklenburg	Mecklenburg-Strelitz		MST
Nassau		Nassau-Usingen (1816)	
Nassau		Nassau-Weilburg (1816)	
Nassau (1849)					NAS
Netherlands					NL
New Zealand					NZ
Norway						NOR
Oldenburg					OLD
Poland						POL
Portugal					PRT 
Prussia 	Brandenburg			BRG
Prussia 	Hinterpommern[Further Pomerania]	
Prussia		Neuenberg/Neuchatel (1857 then Swiss)	
Prussia 	Niederschlesien [Lower Silesia]	
Prussia 	Oberschlesien [Upper Silesia]	
Prussia 	Pommern [Pomerania]		POM
Prussia		Posen				POS
Prussia 	Provinz Sachsen [Saxony]	SAC
Prussia 	Rheinland [Rhineland]		RHE
Prussia 	Schlesien [Silesia]		SCI
Prussia 	Schwedisch Pommern [Swedish Pomerania]	
Prussia 	Stadt Berlin [Berlin City]	BER
Prussia 	Vorpommern [Hither Pomerania]	
Prussia 	Westfalen [Westphalia]		WFA
Prussia [Preussen]				PRU
Reuss						RES
Reuss		Reuss-Ebersdorf (1848) (Jüngere Linie)	JL
Reuss		Reuss-Greiz (Altere Linie)		AL
Reuss		Reuss-Lobenstein (1824) (Jüngere Linie)	JL
Reuss		Reuss-Schleiz (Jüngere Linie)		JL
Romania						RO
Russia						RUS 
Saxony [Kingdom of] [Sachsen Kgr]		SAC
Schleswig-Holstien				SCN
Schleswig-Holstien	Schleswig		SCL
Schwarzburg					SCH
Schwarzburg	Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt	 	RUD
Schwarzburg	Schwarzburg-Sondershausen	SON
Scotland					SCT
Scotland	Aberdeen			ABD
Scotland	Angus				ANS
Scotland	Argyll				ARL
Scotland	Ayr				AYR
Scotland	Banff				BAN
Scotland	Berwick				BEW
Scotland	Bute				BUT
Scotland	Caithness			CAI
Scotland	Clackmannan			CLK
Scotland	Dumbarton			DNB
Scotland	Dumfries			DFS
Scotland	East Lothian			ELN
Scotland	Fife				FIF
Scotland	Inverness			INV
Scotland	Kincardine			KCD
Scotland	Kinross				KRS
Scotland	Kirkcudbright			KKD
Scotland	Lanark				LKS
Scotland	Midlothian			MLN
Scotland	Moray				MOR
Scotland	Nairn				NAI
Scotland	Orkney Isles			OKI
Scotland	Peebles				PEE
Scotland	Perth				PER
Scotland	Renfrew				RFW
Scotland	Ross & Cromarty			ROC
Scotland	Roxburgh			ROX
Scotland	Selkirk				SEL
Scotland	Shetland			SHI
Scotland	Stirling			STI
Scotland	Sutherland			SUT
Scotland	West Lothian			WLN
Scotland	Wigtown				WIG
South Africa					RSA
Spain						ESP
Sweden						SWE
Switzerland					CH
Switzerland	Aargau				AG
Switzerland	Appenzell A.Rh			AAR
Switzerland	Appenzell I.Rh			AIR
Switzerland	Basel-Landschaft		BL
Switzerland	Basel-Stadt			BS
Switzerland	Bern				BE
Switzerland	Frieburg			FR
Switzerland	Genf				GE
Switzerland	Glarus				GL
Switzerland	Graubunden			GR
Switzerland	Luzern				LU
Switzerland	Neuenburg			NEU
Switzerland	Nidwalden			NW
Switzerland	Obwalden			OW
Switzerland	Sankt Gallen			SG
Switzerland	Schaffhausen			SH
Switzerland	Schwyz				SZ
Switzerland	Solothun			SO
Switzerland	Tessin				TI
Switzerland	Thurgau				TG
Switzerland	Uri				UR
Switzerland	Waad [Vaud]			VD
Switzerland	Wallis [Valais]			VS
Switzerland	Zug				ZG
Switzerland	Zürich				ZH
Thuringia	Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld [Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld]	SXC
Thuringia	Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg [Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg]	SXG
Thuringia	Sachsen-Hildburghausen [Saxe-Hildburghausen]	SXH
Thuringia	Sachsen-Meiningen [Saxe-Meiningen]		SXM
Thuringia	Sachsen-Weimar [Saxe-Weimar]			SXW
Thuringia [Thüringen]				THE
United Kingdom					UK
United States					USA
United States	Alabama				AL
United States	Alaska				AK
United States	Arizona				AZ
United States	Arkansas			AR
United States	California			CA
United States	Colorado			CO
United States	Connecticut			CT
United States	Delaware			DE
United States	Dist of Columbia		DC
United States	Florida				FL
United States	Georgia				GA
United States	Hawaii				HI
United States	Idaho				ID
United States	Illinois			IL
United States	Indiana				IN
United States	Iowa				IA
United States	Kansas				KS
United States	Kentucky			KY
United States	Louisana			LA
United States	Maine				ME
United States	Maryland			MD
United States	Massachusetts			MA
United States	Michigan			MI
United States	Minnesota			MN
United States	Misouri				MO
United States	Mississippi			MS
United States	Montana				MT
United States	Nebraska			NE
United States	Nevada				NV
United States	New Hampshire			NH
United States	New Jersey			NJ
United States	New Mexico			NM
United States	New York			NY
United States	North Carolina			NC
United States	North Dakota			ND
United States	Ohio				OH
United States	Oklahoma			OK
United States	Oregon				OR
United States	Pennsylvania			PA
United States	Rhode Island			RI
United States	South Carolina			SC
United States	South Dakota			SD
United States	Tennessee			TN
United States	Texas				TX
United States	Utah				UT
United States	Vermont				VT
United States	Virginia			VA
United States	Washington			WA
United States	West Virginia			WV
United States	Wisconsin			WI
United States	Wyoming				WY
USSR						SU
Wales						WLS
Wales	Anglesey				AGY
Wales	Brecknockshire [Breconshire]		BRE
Wales	Caernarvon				CAE
Wales	Cardiganshire				CGN
Wales	Carmarthen				CMN
Wales	Denbighshire				DEN
Wales	Flintshire				FLN
Wales	Glamorgan				GLA
Wales	Merioneth				MER
Wales	Monmouthshire				MON
Wales	Montgomeryshire				MGY
Wales	Pembroke				PEM
Wales	Radnorshire				RAD
West Prussia	Kulmerland	
West Prussia	Netzedistrikt	
West Prussia	Pommerellen	
West Prussia [Westpreussen]			WPRU
Wurtemberg [Württemberg] 			WUE
Yugoslavia					YU

NB : I'd love to find out more about these people, particularly those from the last 200-300 years.

If you can help flesh out their stories, please get in touch via my personal site, at / contact . Thank-you.